Sinusitis is such a frequent pathology that most people have suffered from it at some point in their lives. A simple flu or a badly cured cold are mainly the reasons that usually trigger a sinusitis picture.
Not giving enough importance to the symptoms it presents can lead to chronic sinusitis over time, so it is advisable to know how to prevent and treat sinusitis.
WHAT IS SINUSITIS
Sinusitis is inflammation of the lining of the paranasal sinuses. The paranasal sinuses are cavities that are found in the surrounding bones and that are connected by ducts and holes to the nasal cavity. These cavities are made up of mucosa and their main function is to help humidify and warm the air that enters through the nose.
WHAT IS SINUSITIS DUE TO, CAUSES OF SINUSITIS
Do we know what causes sinusitis and what are the factors that cause it?
The most common causes of sinusitis are colds and the flu, although these are not the only factors.
Many of the poorly cured colds usually lead to sinusitis, I feel this along with the flu the most common causes of sinusitis. The accumulation of mucus and the obstruction of the nostrils leads to an inflammation of the sinuses, giving rise to inflammation of the mucosa.
Another cause of sinusitis is allergy, which is usually a factor that predisposes people who suffer from it to present sinusitis. What happens in the case of rhinitis is that the mucosa of the nose becomes inflamed and the paranasal sinuses produce mucus, which reaches the nasal passages through the ducts. When these ducts are obstructed, as in the case of rhinitis, then the mucus begins to accumulate, becomes infected and ends up producing sinusitis.
There are other factors that are less frequently the cause of sinusitis, such as irritating factors (such as tobacco), chlorine in swimming pool water, air conditioners, sudden changes in atmospheric pressure, such as flying or diving, or even have a weak immune system.
SYMPTOMS OF SINUSITIS
In general, the symptoms that sinusitis presents are often confused with those of a common cold or a flu, since these are usually the same: discharge, nasal congestion, headache, sensation of pressure behind the eyes, cough, which usually worsens at night and in some cases fever.
The difference between sinusitis and a cold will depend on the condition presented by the patient in terms of the duration of the pathology. Normally those colds that last more than seven or ten days, end up presenting a picture of sinusitis.
In the case of acute sinusitis, the symptoms are very similar to those of a cold, although they are usually accompanied by fever, purulent mucus, pain and general malaise.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ACUTE SINUSITIS AND CHRONIC SINUSITIS
Fundamentally the difference between these two sinusitis, to which we could add an intermediate sinusitis called subacute sinusitis, is in the duration of the symptoms.
Sinusitis can be: Acute: symptoms last up to 4 weeks.
Subacute sinusitis: from 4 to 12 weeks.
Chronic Sinusitis: 3 months or more.
VIRAL SINUSITIS AND BACTERIAL SINUSITIS
Although the origin of most sinusitis is viral, it is important to know the difference with bacterial sinusitis, since depending on one or the other, the treatment will be different.
Viral sinusitis is the most common sinusitis that usually occurs in most pathologies of this type. In the case of bacterial sinusitis, it is a bacterium that is responsible for an infection in the paranasal sinuses.
The symptomatological picture that draws much more attention is the bacterial picture, where there is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses with a secretion of greenish-yellow mucus, with a constant sensation of blockage. The patient is usually discharging mucus throughout the day, including fever in acute bacterial sinusitis.
WHAT IS RHINOSINUSITIS
Rhinosinusitis is actually the term used to refer to sinusitis.
The term of sinusitis has been the classic term that has been used for this pathology, until approximately ten years ago, the relationship between the paranasal sinuses and the nostrils was discovered.
Due to this relationship and because the nasal and sinus mucosa are continuous, and therefore there is no clear boundary between them, it is more appropriate to refer to the pathology as rhinosinusitis.
In addition, it is very rare for sinusitis to occur without rhinitis also occurring, that is, irritation of the mucosa of the nose, so the most appropriate term is rhinosinusitis.
Chronic sinusitis is what is called the inflammation of the paranasal sinuses whose symptoms are present for more than three months.
In other words, when the symptoms of acute sinusitis persist over time, for a prolonged period of more than three months, then we are talking about chronic sinusitis.
It is very important to differentiate this sinusitis from acute sinusitis, which usually lasts no more than four weeks.
These types of patients with chronic sinusitis usually do not give importance to the symptoms they have been having for months, thinking that it may simply be an allergy or a cold that lasts over time, so they do not usually go to the doctor until several weeks have passed. .
In the case of people who, for various reasons such as congenital alterations in the nose, have a deviated septum, or have had poor treatment of an initial sinusitis, the pathology can progress towards chronic sinusitis.
TREATMENT FOR SINUSITIS AND HOW TO CURE IT
The treatment for sinusitis or rhinosinusitis will depend on the type of sinusitis that the patient presents, so a good diagnosis by a specialist is key to knowing how to cure sinusitis.
There are many treatments for sinusitis, from pharmacological treatments to natural and home treatments, and even in more serious cases, surgical treatments.
In most cases of sinusitis, since these are viral, the treatment will consist of prescribing the patient nasal decongestants, saline solutions, anti-inflammatories and antibiotics in the case of sinusitis caused by a bacterial origin.
In very few cases, surgical treatment by endoscopy will be necessary, except in those chronic sinusitis, in which other treatments have not been effective.
A good diagnosis is key to knowing the type of sinusitis that the patient presents and based on the type of sinusitis, think about one treatment or another.
Going to a medical center or one of the many clinics in Guatemala that has the best professionals and the best specialists in sinusitis is important when treating this pathology.
Dr. Arturo Cordero is an ENT specialist in Guatemala City with more than 8 years of experience attending patients with sinus problems in his consultations. And he is a recognized professional in Guatemala in those pathologies of sinusitis that do not improve and worsen over time, as in the case of chronic sinusitis.
From the otorhinolaryngology center, Dr. Arturo Cordero has been performing an average of 20 surgeries per month, including operations on patients with chronic sinusitis, so his long medical history, his experience in this type of pathology and his treatment of the patient, contribute an added value in your consultations and in the treatment and cure of sinusitis.